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Employment and second childbirths in Europe

Angela Greulich (), Mathilde Guergoat-Larivière () and Olivier Thévenon ()
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Angela Greulich: CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - UP1 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, INED - Institut national d'études démographiques
Mathilde Guergoat-Larivière: LIRSA - Laboratoire interdisciplinaire de recherche en sciences de l'action - CNAM - Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers [CNAM], CEET - Centre d'études de l'emploi et du travail - CNAM - Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers [CNAM] - M.E.N.E.S.R. - Ministère de l'Education nationale, de l’Enseignement supérieur et de la Recherche - Ministère du Travail, de l'Emploi et de la Santé

Université Paris1 Panthéon-Sorbonne (Post-Print and Working Papers) from HAL

Abstract: This article studies the effects of women's employment on second births in contemporary Europe. By mobilizing longitudinal data from the European Union's Statistics of Income and Living conditions (EU-SILC) and aggregated data from the OECD Family Database, we find evidence that being in employment significantly increases women's probability of second childbirth. The magnitude of the effect differs, however, among individuals. The positive impact is stronger for highly educated women and for women with partners who are themselves in employment. Dual employment thus favours family enlargement from one to two children more strongly than other employment configurations within the couple. Multilevel models also reveal that the positive effect of employment on the transition to second childbirth is reinforced in countries with high childcare coverage. The development of childcare at the country level - the most effective family policy to secure women's employment - increases the individual probability for women of having a second child, whereas other types of institutional support such as leave schemes or lump-sum cash transfers do not have such a positive effect.

Date: 2017-11
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Published in Population - Paris, Institut National D'etudes Demographiques, 2017, 72 (4), pp.625-646. ⟨https://muse.jhu.edu/article/688629/pdf⟩. ⟨10.3917/popu.1704.0653⟩

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