The Biological Standard of Living in Indonesia during the 20th Century: Evidence from the Age at Menarche
Pierre van der Eng () and
No 2018-12, CEI Working Paper Series from Center for Economic Institutions, Institute of Economic Research, Hitotsubashi University
This paper analyses long-term changes in the mean age at menarche (MAM) as a biological indicator of changes in the standard of living in Indonesia. It finds that MAM was about 15.5 for birth cohorts in the late-19th century, decreasing to 14.5 by the 1930s, at which level it stagnated until the gradual decrease resumed since the early 1960s to around 12.5 in the mid-2000s. The paper considers that long-term improvements in nutrition, educational attainment and health care explain these trends. An international comparison of long-term changes finds that MAM in Indonesia was much lower than in Korea and China until respectively 1970 and 1990, but comparable to Japan until 1950 and to Malaysia until 1930. The paper presents reasons why these differences are unlikely to be related to dissimilarities in climate and ethnicity, and concludes that they are indicative of relative standards of living.
Keywords: living standards; human growth; menarche; Indonesia; Asia (search for similar items in EconPapers)
JEL-codes: I12 I31 N15 O15 (search for similar items in EconPapers)
Pages: 32 p.
New Economics Papers: this item is included in nep-his and nep-sea
Note: This version: 5 October 2018
References: View references in EconPapers View complete reference list from CitEc
Citations: Track citations by RSS feed
Downloads: (external link)
Journal Article: The biological standard of living in Indonesia during the 20th century: Evidence from the age at menarche (2019)
This item may be available elsewhere in EconPapers: Search for items with the same title.
Export reference: BibTeX
RIS (EndNote, ProCite, RefMan)
Persistent link: https://EconPapers.repec.org/RePEc:hit:hitcei:2018-12
Access Statistics for this paper
More papers in CEI Working Paper Series from Center for Economic Institutions, Institute of Economic Research, Hitotsubashi University Contact information at EDIRC.
Bibliographic data for series maintained by Reiko Suzuki (). This e-mail address is bad, please contact .