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Mobility Report Cards: The Role of Colleges in Intergenerational Mobility

Raj Chetty (), John Friedman (), Emmanuel Saez, Nick Turner and Danny Yagan
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Emmanuel Saez: University of California, Berkeley
Danny Yagan: University of California, Berkeley

No 2017-059, Working Papers from Human Capital and Economic Opportunity Working Group

Abstract: We characterize intergenerational income mobility at each college in the United States using data for over 30 million college students from 1999-2013. We document four results. First, access to colleges varies greatly by parent income. For example, children whose parents are in the top 1% of the income distribution are 77 times more likely to attend an Ivy League college than those whose parents are in the bottom income quintile. Second, children from low- and high-income families have similar earnings outcomes conditional on the college they attend, indicating that low-income students are not mismatched at selective colleges. Third, rates of upward mobility – the fraction of students who come from families in the bottom income quintile and reach the top quintile – differ substantially across colleges because low-income access varies significantly across colleges with similar earnings outcomes. Rates of bottom-to-top quintile mobility are highest at certain mid-tier public universities, such as the City University of New York and California State colleges. Rates of upper-tail (bottom quintile to top 1%) mobility are highest at elite colleges, such as Ivy League universities. Fourth, the fraction of students from low-income families did not change substantially between 2000-2011 at elite private colleges, but fell sharply at colleges with the highest rates of bottom-to-top-quintile mobility. Although our descriptive analysis does not identify colleges’ causal effects on students’ outcomes, the publicly available statistics constructed here highlight colleges that deserve further study as potential engines of upward mobility.

Keywords: income mobility; college students; role of education (search for similar items in EconPapers)
JEL-codes: J62 H75 I24 (search for similar items in EconPapers)
New Economics Papers: this item is included in nep-lab and nep-pbe
Date: 2017-08
Note: MIP
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http://humcap.uchicago.edu/RePEc/hka/wpaper/Chetty ... ity-report-cards.pdf First version, July 2017 (application/pdf)

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