Is the Past Still Holding Us Back? A Study on Intergenerational Education Mobility in India (revised as on 26.09.18)
Kishan P K V
No WP 2018-01-03, IIMA Working Papers from Indian Institute of Management Ahmedabad, Research and Publication Department
This paper explores various aspects of, and factors affecting intergenerational education mobility in India. We employ IHDS-II (2011-12) and prepare a representative dataset that goes beyond ‘co-resident only’ son-father pairs by utilizing the retrospective information conveying the educational attainment of the father of the male household head. From the resulting sample of 44,532 son-father pairs and appropriate cohort analysis, we find that there is still a high degree of intergenerational persistence in education, although the same is decreasing steadily over time. Through quantile regressions, we detect a non-linearity in the relationship between fathers’ and sons’ schooling outcomes along the education distribution. Moreover, the mobility gap between the historically advantaged subgroups (urban population, upper castes, Hindus, etc.) and the others (rural population, lower castes, Muslim, etc.) increasingly widens along the middle and upper quantiles of the distribution. Finally, “Higher Inequality (during fathers’ generation) à Lesser Mobility” nexus in education plays out for the Indian scenario and thus corroborates the ‘Great Gatsby Curve’. Other macro variables, economic growth and public expenditure in education, bear a positive association with education mobility.
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