Determinants of Small-Scale Farmer inclusion in Emerging Modern Agrifood Markets: A Study of the Dairy Industry in India
Vijay Paul Sharma,
Kalpesh Kumar and
Raj Vir Singh
No WP2009-02-01, IIMA Working Papers from Indian Institute of Management Ahmedabad, Research and Publication Department
In response to structural transformations taking place in the Indian dairy sector mainly in processing segment this paper examines determinants of market channel choices of milk producers based on a survey of 390 farm households in 2007. It also attempts to investigate what impacts these market channel choices may have on farmers' income and technology adoption. A two-stage multinomial logit model is employed to investigate determinants and effects of market channel choices of milk producers. While modern marketing channels have emerged in the Indian dairy sector, the traditional sector is still dominant. Farmers sell nearly 85 per cent of milk to traditional channels. The share of the modern organized sector is growing but at a slow pace. The dominance of the traditional channel is an indication of a very competitive and cost-effective traditional market in linking producers and consumers. It is possible that high transaction costs also act as a barrier. However, issues of hygiene and quality of milk being sold through traditional channels require attention. Results indicate that small dairy farmers and the poor are mostly excluded from modern private sector channels. Household's socio-economic variables (farm size, age and education) are important determinants of marketing channel choice in the case of the modern private sector. Large farmers have better opportunity to participate in modern private channels. Market infrastructure such as road, provision of veterinary services, distance from milk collection centre, markets, milk collection centres, price risks, etc. have significant effect on farmers' marketing choices. The second stage results of the Heckman model show that education, membership of producers' association/cooperatives, provision of veterinary services, and farm size have significant impact on cooperative marketing channel farmers' income while in the case of modern private sector, education and price risk have significant impact on income.
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