Private Educational Expenditure Inequality between Migrant and Urban Households in China’s Cities
Yiwen Chen (),
Ioana Salagean () and
Benteng Zou ()
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Yiwen Chen: Central Bank of Luxembourg
Ioana Salagean: STATEC
CREA Discussion Paper Series from Center for Research in Economic Analysis, University of Luxembourg
China’s household registration (hukou) system restricts access to public schools to children without local city hukou. Migrant households thus need to finance privately all education-related costs their children incur. In contrast, local urban households often top- up their spending with private tutoring. Consequently, private educational expenditure of households in China’s cities reflects both willingness to investment in human capital and institutional constraints. We compare the educational expenditure of parents migrating with children to China’s cities to that of local urban parents, with a special focus on the role of the household registration system (hukou) in shaping these inequalities. We find that overall expenditure of migrants overwhelmingly exceeds that of locals after controlling for social and economic characteristics, but expenditure types are different. More detailed analysis of three subcategories of the education-related expenditure shows that migrant households spend more on tuition and sponsorship compared to households with local city hukou, but much less on private tutoring.
Keywords: Chinese internal migrant children; educational investment; hukou registration (search for similar items in EconPapers)
JEL-codes: O15 I31 J13 R23 (search for similar items in EconPapers)
New Economics Papers: this item is included in nep-cna, nep-mig, nep-tra and nep-ure
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Persistent link: https://EconPapers.repec.org/RePEc:luc:wpaper:20-03
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