Modelling Gender Dimensions of the Impact of Economic Reforms in Pakistan
Working Papers MPIA from PEP-MPIA
Recently, gender-aware computable general equilibrium models (CGE) have been developed to analyse the impact of trade liberalization, with focus on a gender-disaggregated analysis of the production side of the economy. However, these studies ignore the gender-specific consumption effects due to the paucity of gender disaggregated data. We introduce intra-household allocation for the first time in a CGE-framework. The data is arranged in a gender-aware social accounting matrix, which reveals the hidden work of women (market and non-market). This study analyses the gender dimensions of the impact of economic reforms using three types of poverty indicators - FGT, capability, and relative time poverty - calculated on the basis of the simulation results. The study mainly found out that both trade liberalization and cuts in government expenditure are pro-rich. Within poor households, both policies hurt women more than men. Despite declines in absolute poverty in both exercises, the gender composition of the poor population changes in the majority of households. In the trade liberalization exercise, poverty among women relative to men increases in poor households and decreases among the rich, leading to an overall increase in the relative poverty of women in Pakistan. However, in the fiscal adjustment exercise, the incidence of poverty remains constant. In both exercises, time poverty among women relative to men increases in rural areas and decreases in urban areas, leading to an increase in relative poverty among women in Pakistan. The poverty of capabilities among men and women increases in a similar way after trade liberalization when measured by the infant mortality rate, but it affects women more negatively when measured by the literacy rate. Cuts in government expenditure also increase capability poverty among women more than men in both regions and in Pakistan as a whole. The study concludes that prosperity (increase in income), as well as education, can help reduce the gender gap as poverty decreases in relatively rich households, whether it is measured in monetary terms, capability terms, or in terms of time-use.
Keywords: Pakistan; Gender; CGE; Trade Policy; Public Policy; Time Allocation; Household Production and Intra-House Allocation; Poverty and Capability Development (search for similar items in EconPapers)
JEL-codes: O53 J16 C68 O24 J38 J22 D13 I32 (search for similar items in EconPapers)
New Economics Papers: this item is included in nep-cmp, nep-dev and nep-hap
References: View references in EconPapers View complete reference list from CitEc
Citations: View citations in EconPapers (6) Track citations by RSS feed
Downloads: (external link)
This item may be available elsewhere in EconPapers: Search for items with the same title.
Export reference: BibTeX
RIS (EndNote, ProCite, RefMan)
Persistent link: https://EconPapers.repec.org/RePEc:lvl:mpiacr:2007-13
Access Statistics for this paper
More papers in Working Papers MPIA from PEP-MPIA Contact information at EDIRC.
Bibliographic data for series maintained by Manuel Paradis ().