Structural Transformation, Extractive Industries and Gender Equality
Anja Benshaul-Tolonen and
No 221, OxCarre Working Papers from Oxford Centre for the Analysis of Resource Rich Economies, University of Oxford
Does structural transformation matter for gender equality? This paper reviews the gender impacts of the highest value export industry in low and middle income countriesâ€”the extractive industries (oil, gas and mining). First, we analyze cross-country relationships between natural resource dependence and gender welfare indicators. Countries that are dependent on natural resource rents have greater gender inequality, lower education levels and more patriarchal norms, even after taking GDP per capita levels into account. Second, we conduct a comprehensive review of the empirical literature on the impact of extractive industries on women and gender relations, covering topics such as labor force participation, marriage markets, health, and security. The review points to extractive industries as a mixed blessing for women, showing heterogeneity across genders, sectors, and contexts. We propose new directions for research to ensure that extractive industries generate inclusive growth.
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Persistent link: https://EconPapers.repec.org/RePEc:oxf:oxcrwp:221
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