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Improved estimates of the benefits of breastfeeding using sibling comparisons to reduce selection bias

Siobhan Reilly () and Eirik Evenhouse ()

MPRA Paper from University Library of Munich, Germany

Abstract: Objective Better measurement of the health and cognitive benefits of breastfeeding by using sibling comparisons to reduce sample selection bias. Data We use data on the breastfeeding history, physical and emotional health, academic performance, cognitive ability, and demographic characteristics of 16,903 adolescents from the first (1994) wave of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. The sample includes 2,734 sibling pairs. Study Design We examine the relationship between breastfeeding history and 15 indicators of physical health, emotional health, and cognitive ability, using ordinary least squares and logit regression. For each indicator, we estimate, in addition to the usual between-family model, a within-family model to see whether differences in siblings' outcomes are associated with differences in the siblings' breastfeeding histories. Principal Findings. Nearly all of the correlations found in the between-family model become statistically insignificant in the within-family model. The notable exception is a persistent positive correlation between breastfeeding and cognitive ability. These findings hold whether breastfeeding is measured in terms of duration or as a Yes/No variable. Conclusions This study provides persuasive evidence of a causal connection between breastfeeding and intelligence. However, it also suggests that nonexperimental studies of breastfeeding overstate some of its other long-term benefits, even if controls are included for race, ethnicity, income, and education. The definitive version is available at

Keywords: Breast feeding; siblings; adolescents; intelligence; obesity; BMI; selection bias; breastfeeding; academic performance; allergy; PVT; Add Health; National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health; bonding; overweight; diabetes; IQ; asthma; depression; human capital; parental investment; school failure (search for similar items in EconPapers)
JEL-codes: D1 I12 J13 (search for similar items in EconPapers)
Date: 2005-12
References: View references in EconPapers View complete reference list from CitEc
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Published in Health Services Research 6.40(2005): pp. 1781-1802

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