Error-correction based panel estimates of the relationship between CO2 emissions, energy usage and output in Gulf Cooperation Council countries
Helmi Hamdi () and
Rashid Sbia ()
MPRA Paper from University Library of Munich, Germany
This study examines the causal relationship between carbon dioxide emissions, energy consumption and real output within a panel vector error correction model for six Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries namely Bahrain, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Qatar and United Arab Emirates over the period 1980–2009. In the long-run, there is a dynamic relationship between carbon emissions and income, which confirms the presence of the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) for GCC countries. The short-run dynamics results reveal a bi-directional causality between carbon and energy usage but reject the existence of EKC.
Keywords: Environmental Kuznets Curve; energy consumption; Gulf Cooperation Council (search for similar items in EconPapers)
JEL-codes: Q5 Q56 Q58 (search for similar items in EconPapers)
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Persistent link: https://EconPapers.repec.org/RePEc:pra:mprapa:49906
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