Beta, Sigma and Distributional Convergence in Human Development? Evidence from the Metropolitan Regions of Bolivia
MPRA Paper from University Library of Munich, Germany
Almost half of the population of Bolivia currently lives in the metropolitan regions of La Paz, Santa Cruz, and Cochabamba. Motivated by the potential for growth and development of these regions, this article documents the evolution of their human development differences over the 1992-2013 period. In particular, using the United Nations' human development index at the municipal level, this paper evaluates the process of regional convergence through the lens of three frameworks: beta, sigma, and distributional convergence. The overall result is an increasing tendency toward convergence that is driven by both slower forward mobility of the less developed regions and faster backward mobility of the more developed regions. The distributional convergence framework provides further insights and suggests that the formation and merging of multiple convergence clusters is a salient feature of inequality reduction. Furthermore, in the long-run, convergence appears to be characterized by the transformation of a trimodal distribution into a left–skewed unimodal distribution. The article concludes emphasizing that the cross-regional distribution of human development in Bolivia is quite sticky at its left tail and, as a result, the least developed regions are still relatively far from achieving complete convergence in the long run.
Keywords: convergence; distribution dynamics; human development; Bolivia (search for similar items in EconPapers)
JEL-codes: O10 O15 O47 O54 (search for similar items in EconPapers)
New Economics Papers: this item is included in nep-ure
References: View references in EconPapers View complete reference list from CitEc
Citations: View citations in EconPapers (2) Track citations by RSS feed
Downloads: (external link)
https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/87627/1/MPRA_paper_87627.pdf original version (application/pdf)
This item may be available elsewhere in EconPapers: Search for items with the same title.
Export reference: BibTeX
RIS (EndNote, ProCite, RefMan)
Persistent link: https://EconPapers.repec.org/RePEc:pra:mprapa:87627
Access Statistics for this paper
More papers in MPRA Paper from University Library of Munich, Germany Ludwigstraße 33, D-80539 Munich, Germany. Contact information at EDIRC.
Bibliographic data for series maintained by Joachim Winter ().