Unions and Inequality Over the Twentieth Century: New Evidence from Survey Data
Ilyana Kuziemko and
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Henry Farber: Princeton University and NBER
Daniel Herbst: Princeton University
Ilyana Kuziemko: Princeton University and NBER
Suresh Naidu: Columbia University and NBER
Working Papers from Princeton University, Department of Economics, Industrial Relations Section.
It is well-documented that, since at least the early twentieth century, U.S. income inequality has varied inversely with union density. But moving beyond this aggregate relationship has proven difficult, in part because of the absence of micro-level data on union membership prior to 1973. We develop a new source of micro-data on union membership, opinion polls primarily from Gallup (N â‰ˆ 980,000), to look at the effects of unions on inequality from 1936 to the present. First, we present a new time series of household union membership from this period. Second, we use these data to show that, throughout this period, union density is inversely correlated with the relative skill of union members. When density was at its peak in the 1950s and 1960s, union members were relatively less-skilled, whereas today and in the pre-World War II period, union members are equally skilled as non-members. Third, we estimate union household income premiums over this same period, finding that despite large changes in union density and selection, the premium holds steady, at roughly 15-20 log points, over the past eighty years. Finally, we present a number of direct results that, across a variety of identifying assumptions, suggest unions have had a significant, equalizing effect on the income distribution over our long sample period.
JEL-codes: J51 D31 (search for similar items in EconPapers)
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