Why Do Farmers Burn Rice Residue? Examining Farmers ? Choices in Punjab, Pakistan
Tanvir Ahmed and
No 76, Working papers from The South Asian Network for Development and Environmental Economics
Burning agriculture residues has multiple negative effects including local air pollution, increase in black carbon and contributions to regional and global climate change. This study seeks to understand why farmers burn rice residue by analyzing the residue adoption choices of farmers in the rice-wheat cropping system of Punjab, Pakistan. Rice residue has to be burned, removed or incorporated into the soil in order to prepare fields for the next wheat crop. The most favored residue management practice in Punjab, in terms of total rice area, is complete burning of rice residue, followed by removal of rice residue. When farmers remove residue, it is pre-dominantly because they use it to feed animals. Each practice has different cost implications. Complete residue removal costs PKR 4586 (US$ 55) per acre, on average. Further, complete residue removal is, on average, 34% costlier to farmers than full burning of residue. Thus farmers would need to be subsidized to avoid residue burning practices. A number of socio-economic factors influence farmers' residue management decisions. For example, the proportion of rice area allocated to full residue removal practice increases if the farm is owner operated or if the farmer has a larger number of livestock. On the other hand, the proportion of area that is fully burned increases with farm size, reduction in turn-around time between the harvesting of rice and the sowing of wheat, and the ease with which farm machinery can be used for preparing the wheat field.The study concludes that without some technological innovations to make rice residue removal and wheat field preparation less costly, it likely that this trend in residue burning will continue.
Keywords: Black carbon; Rice residue management; Seemingly unrelated regression; Punjab, Pakistan (search for similar items in EconPapers)
References: Add references at CitEc
Citations: Track citations by RSS feed
Downloads: (external link)
http://www.sandeeonline.org/uploads/documents/publ ... _Paper_76_Tanvir.pdf
This item may be available elsewhere in EconPapers: Search for items with the same title.
Export reference: BibTeX
RIS (EndNote, ProCite, RefMan)
Persistent link: https://EconPapers.repec.org/RePEc:snd:wpaper:76
Access Statistics for this paper
More papers in Working papers from The South Asian Network for Development and Environmental Economics South Asian Network for Development and Environmental Economics PO Box: 8975, EPC: 1056 Kathmandu, Nepal.
Bibliographic data for series maintained by Anuradhak ().