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Banka Ticari Kredilerinde Yogunlasma

Burak Deniz, Fehmi Furkan Turan and Ibrahim Yarba

CBT Research Notes in Economics from Research and Monetary Policy Department, Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey

Abstract: [TR] Bu calismada, firma duzeyinde mikro veri seti kullanilarak Turkiye’de bankacilik sektoru tarafindan saglanan ticari kredilerin yogunlasmasi analiz edilmektedir. Calismanin sonuclari, 2011-2022 doneminde toplam kredi yogunlasmasinin arttigini ve imalat sanayi sektorlerindeki TL kredi yogunlasmasinin imalat disi sektorlere kiyasla daha yuksek seviyelerde oldugunu gostermektedir. TL kredilerde yogunlasmanin finansal kosullarin sikilastigi 2018-2019 doneminde ivmelendigi, 2020 yilinda yasanilan pandemi doneminde azaldigi, sonraki yillarda ise gorece yatay bir seyir izledigi gorulmektedir. Firma buyuklugu bazinda kredi dagilimlarina iliskin alternatif gostergeler de bu bulgulari desteklemektedir. Ampirik model sonuclari kredi yogunlasmasi artisi ile rekabet gostergelerinden piyasa yogunlasmasinin arttigini gostermektedir. Ayrica, sonuclar kredi piyasasinin siki oldugu donemlerde toplam kredi ve TL cinsi kredi yogunlasmasinin gorece daha fazla arttigini gostermektedir. Kredi yogunlasmasinin dongusel yapisina iliskin bu bulgular, oz sermaye finansmanini destekleyen, sermaye piyasalarinin gelistirilmesi ve finansal derinligin artirilmasina yonelik politikalar ile kredilerin verimli ve etkin kullanimina yonelik secici kredi politikalarinin onemine isaret etmektedir. [EN] In this study, the concentration of commercial loans provided by the banking sector in Türkiye is analyzed by using a firm-level micro dataset. The results of the study show that total loan concentration increased over the 2011-2022 period, and TL loan concentration in the manufacturing industry was at higher levels compared to non-manufacturing sectors. It can be seen that concentration in TL loans accelerated especially during the 2018-2019 period when financial conditions tightened, and that the concentration decreased in 2020 under pandemic conditions, whereas it followed a relatively horizontal course in the following years. Alternative indicators regarding loan distributions based on firm size also support these findings. The results of the empirical model reveal that market concentration which is one of the indicators of market competition increases with loan concentration. Furthermore, the results show that total loan and TL loan concentration increase relatively more during periods when the credit market is tight. These findings regarding the cyclical structure of loan concentration point to the importance of policies that support equity financing, development of capital markets and increasing financial depth, and selective loan policies for the efficient and effective use of loans.

Date: 2024
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