The Reluctant Transformation: Modernization, Religion, and Human Capital in Nineteenth Century Egypt
Mohamed Saleh ()
No 13-434, TSE Working Papers from Toulouse School of Economics (TSE)
Over the nineteenth century, Egypt embarked on one of the world's earliest state-led modernization programs in production, education, and the army. I examine the impact of this ambitious program on long-standing human capital differentials and occupational and educational segregation between Muslims, Christians, and Jews. I employ a new and unique data source, samples of the 1848 and 1868 Egyptian censuses that I digitized from the original manuscript forms, to examine this question. I find that the first wave of industrial modernization widened the religious occupational gap that was traditionally in favor of non-Muslims, but the second wave led to upward occupational mobility among both Muslims and Christians, although it did not alter the gap. Educational and military modernization, on the other hand, favored Muslims who benefited from these institutions almost exclusively, but the impact was too limited to induce a general catching-up effect. Overall, occupational and educational segregation was not attenuated by modernization, both because the traditional institutions in production and education were still the major routes for skill-acquisition, and because the new routes for mobility that modernization created were themselves segregated.
JEL-codes: N35 O14 (search for similar items in EconPapers)
References: View references in EconPapers View complete reference list from CitEc
Citations: Track citations by RSS feed
Downloads: (external link)
http://idei.fr/sites/default/files/medias/doc/wp/2012/wp_iast_1205.pdf Full text (application/pdf)
Working Paper: The Reluctant Transformation: Modernization, Religion, and Human Capital in Nineteenth Century Egypt (2012)
This item may be available elsewhere in EconPapers: Search for items with the same title.
Export reference: BibTeX
RIS (EndNote, ProCite, RefMan)
Persistent link: https://EconPapers.repec.org/RePEc:tse:wpaper:27645
Access Statistics for this paper
More papers in TSE Working Papers from Toulouse School of Economics (TSE) Contact information at EDIRC.
Bibliographic data for series maintained by ().