Trajectories for energy transition in the countries of the European Union over the period 2000-2015: a multidimensional approach
Rafik Abdessalam and
Jean Bonnet ()
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Patricia Renou-Maissant: Normandie Univ, UNICAEN, CNRS, CREM, F-14000 Caen, France et EconomiX, UMR CNRS 7235, Université de Paris Nanterre, 92001 Nanterre, France
Rafik Abdessalam: Université de Lyon, Lumière Lyon 2, COACTIS, EA 4161, 69365 Lyon Cedex 07, France
Economics Working Paper Archive (University of Rennes 1 & University of Caen) from Center for Research in Economics and Management (CREM), University of Rennes 1, University of Caen and CNRS
Transition towards low-carbon energy sources is a dominant paradigm of public energy policies today. This article conducts an inventory of energy transition in the European Union over the period 2000-2015. Multidimensional data analysis methods are employed in order to develop temporal and spatial typologies of the energy transition with respect to the three targets defined by the European Climate Energy Package. Results show evidence of a gradual transition over three sub-periods towards a more environmentally conscious economy: reducing greenhouse gas emissions, developing renewable energy sources and improving energy efficiency. Four profiles of energy transition are proposed. The evolutionary analyses of the 28 EU countries over the sub-periods shows strong stability in country trajectories, with a few exceptions. The interpretation of the energy transition classes is then enriched by reference to wide range of variables related to five themes, namely energy systems; environmental characteristics; economic performance; political characteristics; and demographic, climatic and geographic characteristics. These themes contribute to the identification of barriers as well as levers in the energy transition. Finally, our results highlight the backwardness of the great Western European countries in achieving the goals assigned to them.
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