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Formal and informal external linkages and firms' innovative strategies. A cross-country comparison

Isabel Maria Bodas Freitas, Tommy Clausen (), Roberto Fontana () and Bart Verspagen
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Tommy Clausen: University of Oslo, and Nordland Research Institute

No 65, MERIT Working Papers from United Nations University - Maastricht Economic and Social Research Institute on Innovation and Technology (MERIT)

Abstract: Firms increasingly rely upon external actors for their innovation process. Interaction with these actors may occur formally (i.e. through a collaboration agreement) or informally (i.e. external actors acts as sources of knowledge). This paper analyses the reasons why firms consider it to be important to develop formal and informal external linkages in the innovation process by looking at the role played by firms' innovative strategies and by taking into account that a complementarity or substitutive relationship might exist between formal and informal linkages. Data come from the Third Community Innovation Survey (CIS 3), where we have access to firm level micro-data from Norway, Sweden, the Netherlands and the UK.

Keywords: External knowledge sources; Innovation strategy; Formal cooperation; Multinomial Probit (search for similar items in EconPapers)
JEL-codes: O31 O33 O38 (search for similar items in EconPapers)
Date: 2008
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https://www.merit.unu.edu/publications/wppdf/2008/wp2008-065.pdf (application/pdf)

Related works:
Journal Article: Formal and informal external linkages and firms’ innovative strategies. A cross-country comparison (2011) Downloads
Working Paper: Formal and informal external linkages and firms' innovative strategies. A cross-country comparison (2008) Downloads
Working Paper: Formal and informal external linkages and firms' innovative strategies: A cross-country comparison (2008) Downloads
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