Income and Education as the determinants of Anti-Corruption Attitudes: Evidence from Indonesia
Anita K Zonebia (),
Arief Yusuf () and
Heriyaldi - ()
Additional contact information
Anita K Zonebia: Department of Economics, Padjadjaran University
Heriyaldi -: Department of Economics, Padjadjaran University
No 201502, Working Papers in Economics and Development Studies (WoPEDS) from Department of Economics, Padjadjaran University
Level of economic development has been found to be among the strongest determinants of corruption level in cross-country studies. Those studies use income per capita as a measure of level of development and found that higher level of corruption is associated with lower level of income. We argue that, at any given income level, education is also a very important determinant of the level of corruption and failing to include education may bias or over-estimate the importance of income. We estimated an empirical model of individual’s attitude toward anti-corruption using a large sample of 9,020 individuals that represent Indonesian population and find that the effect of income (proxied by expenditure) is either weakened or eliminated when we control for the level of education. The effect of education is also found to exhibit a non-linear pattern which implies that investing in education will have increasing returns in the form of anti-corruption attitude. This finding supports the view that increasing access to education is an effective measure of reducing corruption norms particularly in developing countries.
Keywords: Corruption; Anti-corruption; development; Indonesia (search for similar items in EconPapers)
JEL-codes: D73 (search for similar items in EconPapers)
New Economics Papers: this item is included in nep-edu and nep-sea
Date: 2015-04, Revised 2015-04
References: View references in EconPapers View complete reference list from CitEc
Citations Track citations by RSS feed
Downloads: (external link)
http://ceds.feb.unpad.ac.id/wopeds/201502.pdf First version, 2015 (application/pdf)
This item may be available elsewhere in EconPapers: Search for items with the same title.
Export reference: BibTeX
RIS (EndNote, ProCite, RefMan)
Persistent link: https://EconPapers.repec.org/RePEc:unp:wpaper:201502
Access Statistics for this paper
More papers in Working Papers in Economics and Development Studies (WoPEDS) from Department of Economics, Padjadjaran University Contact information at EDIRC.
Bibliographic data for series maintained by Arief Anshory Yusuf ().