Monetary policy during transition: an overview
Martha De Melo and
Cevdet Denizer ()
No 1706, Policy Research Working Paper Series from The World Bank
In this paper, the authors examine monetary policy in 26 transition economies in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) and the Former Soviet Union (FSU) between 1989-1994. They provide a schema for classifying the use of 6 important monetary policy instruments, both direct and indirect, and suggest criteria for defining market-oriented use of these instruments. They assess the extent of market-oriented instruments use during the period under review and around stabilization. The impact of instrument use on inflation and financial depth, which declined dramatically during the transition's early years, is also explored. The authors indicate several clear patterns. Among them, by the end of 1994, slightly less than half the countries were relying primarily on market-oriented forms of monetary instruments and had moderate or low reliance on such instruments. Countries quickly formulating a monetary policy response were more likely to switch to market-oriented instruments. Second, CEE countries moved more rapidly than FSU countries towards these forms, even when stage of stabilization is controlled for. Third, using credit ceilings appeared helpful in the year of stabilization, especially in CEE countries; the elimination of these controls was associated with effective stabilization. The authors conclude that monetary stability goes hand in hand with adjustment in the real sectors. Generally, the relatively weak link between market orientation of instruments and indicat effective suggests thst inflation control and financial depth are more directly related to policy stance, which is in turn related to broader structural reforms.
Keywords: Payment Systems&Infrastructure; Economic Theory&Research; Fiscal&Monetary Policy; Environmental Economics&Policies; Banks&Banking Reform; Macroeconomic Management; Environmental Economics&Policies; Banks&Banking Reform; Economic Stabilization; Economic Theory&Research (search for similar items in EconPapers)
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