How to interpret the growing phenomenon of private tutoring: human capital deepening, inequality increasing, or waste of resources ?
Hai-Anh Dang () and
No 4530, Policy Research Working Paper Series from The World Bank
Private tutoring is now a major component of the education sector in many developing countries, yet education policy too seldom acknowledges and makes use of it. Various criticisms have been raised against private tutoring, most notably that it exacerbates social inequalities and may even fail to improve student outcomes. This paper surveys the literature for evidence on private tutoring-the extent of the tutoring phenomenon, the factors that explain its growth, and its cost-effectiveness in improving student academic performance. It also presents a framework for assessing the efficiency and equity effects of tutoring. It concludes that tutoring can raise the effectiveness of the education system under certain reasonable assumptions, even taking into account equity concerns, and it offers guidance for attacking corruption and other problems that diminish the contributions of the tutoring sector.
Keywords: Teaching and Learning; Tertiary Education; Education For All; Primary Education (search for similar items in EconPapers)
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