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The effect of monitoring and crowds on crime and law enforcement: A natural experiment from European football

Brad Humphreys, Alexander Marsella and Levi Pérez
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Alexander Marsella: West Virginia University, Department of Economics

No 22-08, Working Papers from Department of Economics, West Virginia University

Abstract: Technological advancements like the presence of smart phones and body cameras have led to increased monitoring of police, but little evidence exists on their impact. We address these problems using data on fouls from football matches in five European football leagues over six seasons. This period contains exogenous changes in monitoring rule enforcers through introduction of Video Assistant Referee review and limited "bystanders" from Covid-19 restrictions. Results from difference-in-differences models estimated separately for each league indicate that both events influenced the number of fouls called with substantial heterogeneity across leagues and home/away teams.

Keywords: crime; police monitoring; football fouls (search for similar items in EconPapers)
JEL-codes: H41 K42 Z20 (search for similar items in EconPapers)
Pages: 39 pages
Date: 2022-10
New Economics Papers: this item is included in nep-cul, nep-law, nep-spo and nep-ure
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