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The returns to education for opportunity entrepreneurs, necessity entrepreneurs, and paid employees

Frank Fossen and Tobias J. M. Büttner

No 2012/19, Discussion Papers from Free University Berlin, School of Business & Economics

Abstract: We assess the relevance of formal education for the productivity of the self-employed and distinguish between opportunity entrepreneurs, who voluntarily pursue a business opportunity, and necessity entrepreneurs, who lack alternative employment options. We expect differences in the returns to education between these groups because of different levels of control. We use the German Socio-economic Panel and account for the endogeneity of education and non-random selection. The results indicate that the returns to a year of education for opportunity entrepreneurs are 3.5 percentage points higher than the paid employees' rate of 8.1%, but 6.5 percentage points lower for necessity entrepreneurs.

Keywords: returns to education; opportunity; necessity; entrepreneurship (search for similar items in EconPapers)
JEL-codes: I20 J23 J24 J31 L26 (search for similar items in EconPapers)
Date: 2012
New Economics Papers: this item is included in nep-edu, nep-ent, nep-hrm, nep-iue, nep-lab and nep-lma
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https://www.econstor.eu/bitstream/10419/61996/1/722373856.pdf (application/pdf)

Related works:
Journal Article: The returns to education for opportunity entrepreneurs, necessity entrepreneurs, and paid employees (2013) Downloads
Working Paper: The returns to education for opportunity entrepreneurs, necessity entrepreneurs, and paid employees (2013) Downloads
Working Paper: The Returns to Education for Opportunity Entrepreneurs, Necessity Entrepreneurs, and Paid Employees (2012) Downloads
Working Paper: The Returns to Education for Opportunity Entrepreneurs, Necessity Entrepreneurs, and Paid Employees (2012) Downloads
Working Paper: The Returns to Education for Opportunity Entrepreneurs, Necessity Entrepreneurs, and Paid Employees (2012) Downloads
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