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Commuting in dual-earner households: International Gender Differences with Time Use Surveys

Lucia Echeverria, J. Ignacio Gimenez-Nadal and José Alberto Molina

No 1307, GLO Discussion Paper Series from Global Labor Organization (GLO)

Abstract: Prior literature analyzing gender differences in commuting has reported that men commute longer distance/time than do women, and one explanation for this gender gap is based on household responsibilities falling on women. But most of the literature examining gender differences in commuting has not considered the interdependence that exists between the members of couples. We analyze gender differences in commuting time for a sample of dual-earner couples living in Spain, Italy, South Korea, and the United Kingdom, taking into account the inter-relatedness of decisions within couples. We estimate Ordinary Least Squares equations for men and women on commuting time and mode of transport (private, public, and active transport) including own characteristics as well as spouse attributes and commuting choices. Results indicate that the number of children is significantly related to shorter commuting times for female workers in all countries, with no associations found for their male counterparts. In addition, having children is associated with changes in the commuting mode choice of women in Italy, Korea and the UK, but no associations are found for men. Our evidence indicates that, while the presence of children is related to commuting behavior of women, it is not the case for men. Furthermore, we find that couples' decisions on commuting are complementary, which may shed light on their relationship that should be addressed by theoretical models.

Keywords: commuting; gender differences; dual-earner couples; intra-spousal effects; household responsibilities; Multinational Time Use Study (search for similar items in EconPapers)
JEL-codes: D19 J22 O57 R40 (search for similar items in EconPapers)
Date: 2023
New Economics Papers: this item is included in nep-eur, nep-gen, nep-lma and nep-tre
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Working Paper: Commuting in dual-earner households: International gender differences with time use surveys (2023)
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