The evolution of gender-related provisions in regional trade agreements
No ERSD-2021-8, WTO Staff Working Papers from World Trade Organization (WTO), Economic Research and Statistics Division
Regional Trade agreements (RTAs) are sometimes considered as laboratories in which new types of provisions are negotiated to address recent trade-related issues. Although the inclusion of gender-related provisions in RTAs is not a recent phenomenon, only a limited but increasing number of RTAs refer explicitly to gender-related issues. These gender-related provisions are highly heterogeneous and differ in terms of location in the RTA, language, scope and commitments. Some of the most detailed gender-related provisions are found in stand-alone chapters on gender. Cooperation provisions on gender-related issues, including labour, health and social policy, remain the most common type of gender-related provisions found in RTAs. The remaining types of genderrelated provisions, included in a relatively limited number of RTAs, cover different issues, including upholding domestic gender-policies, implementing international gender-related agreements and instruments, and establishing institutional arrangements to oversee the implementation of the gender-related provisions and resolve issues through consultations. The first Global Trade and Gender Arrangement (GTGA), negotiated by Canada, Chile and New Zealand in 2020, builds on many of the gender-related provisions found in RTAs but sets out also new types of gender-related provisions, such as the principle not to weak or reduce the protection provided in gender equality laws and regulations to promote trade or investment.
Keywords: Regional Trade Agreements; Gender; Women; Equality; Inclusiveness (search for similar items in EconPapers)
JEL-codes: F13 F15 (search for similar items in EconPapers)
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