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Innovation and patenting activities of COVID-19 vaccines in WTO members: Analytical review of Medicines Patent Pool (MPP) COVID-19 Vaccines Patent Landscape (VaxPaL)

Ting-Wei Chiang and Xiaoping Wu

No ERSD-2022-1, WTO Staff Working Papers from World Trade Organization (WTO), Economic Research and Statistics Division

Abstract: This working paper provides a statistical analysis of 74 patent families which cover subject matter relevant to ten COVID-19 vaccines. These vaccines have accounted for 99% of the global COVID-19 vaccine production as of 31 December 2021, comprising over ten billion doses. Eight of them, namely BNT162b2 (Pfizer/BioNTech), AZD1222 (AstraZeneca/Oxford), Ad26.COV2-S (J&J), mRNA1273 (Moderna), BBIBP-CorV (Sinopharm/Beijing), Coronavac (Sinovac), Covaxin (Bharat/ICMR), and NVX-CoV2373 (Novavax), have been approved by the World Health Organization (WHO) for inclusion in its Emergency Use Listing (EUL). The analysis is based on VaxPaL, a COVID-19 vaccines patent database developed by the Medicines Patent Pool (MPP). Through the detailed examination of patent applicants, filing dates, and offices of first and subsequent filing, the paper identifies patterns and trends of innovation and patenting activities of COVID-19 vaccines in WTO Members, and presents the legal status of the 74 patent families in 105 jurisdictions. This information may provide useful background for policymakers on the significance and potential impact of these patent families with relevance to the access to and production of these vaccines in their individual countries. This, in turn, may help support practical assessments as to potential options within and beyond the current TRIPS framework to promote equitable access to COVID-19 vaccines.

Keywords: COVID-19; vaccine; patent; whole virus; viral vector; protein subunit; mRNA; filing dates; office of first filing; office of subsequent filing; legal status (search for similar items in EconPapers)
JEL-codes: I18 K11 K15 K30 O30 O31 O34 (search for similar items in EconPapers)
Date: 2022
New Economics Papers: this item is included in nep-hea, nep-ipr, nep-law and nep-tid
References: View complete reference list from CitEc
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