Searching for Triple Dividends in South Africa: Fighting CO2 Pollution and Poverty while Promoting Growth
Jan Van Heerden (),
Mark Horridge (),
Ramos Mabugu and
The Energy Journal, 2006, vol. Volume 27, issue Number 2, 113-142
A CGE model of South Africa is used to find the potential for a double or triple dividend if the revenues raised from an energy-related environmental tax are recycled to households and industry through lowering existing taxes. Four environmental taxes and three revenue-recycling schemes are compared. The environmental taxes are (i) a tax on greenhouse gas emissions, (ii) a fuel tax, (iii) a tax on electricity use, and (iv) an energy tax. The four taxes are constructed such that they have a comparable effect on emissions. The revenue is recycled through either (i) a direct tax break on both labour and capital, (ii) an indirect tax break to all households, or (iii) a reduction in the price of food. A triple dividend is found Ð decreasing emissions, increasing GDP, and decreasing poverty Ð when any one of the environmental taxes is recycled through a reduction in food prices.
JEL-codes: F0 (search for similar items in EconPapers)
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