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The role of demand and supply factors in HICP inflation during the COVID-19 pandemic – a disaggregated perspective

O’Brien, Derry, Clémence Dumoncel and Eduardo Gonçalves

Economic Bulletin Articles, 2021, vol. 1

Abstract: The response to the COVID-19 outbreak with lockdowns implies both a shutdown of some markets and a severe economic downturn. Price developments have been influenced in a complex manner by different demand and supply factors, which limits the applicability of past empirical regularities in the interpretation of recent aggregate inflation developments. This article looks at this complexity and applies a component-by-component approach to analysing HICP inflation that takes into account the circumstances prevailing in individual markets. The article analyses how sub-components of euro area inflation have behaved since the onset of the pandemic. It then elaborates on the relative importance of demand and supply factors driving the disaggregated price developments and the implications for headline inflation. The article concludes with the lessons that can be learnt from this bottom-up analysis, an approach that is particularly suited to current circumstances. JEL Classification: E21, E32

Keywords: euro area; Inflation (search for similar items in EconPapers)
Date: 2021-02
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