Contribution of country-specific electricity mix and charging time to environmental impact of battery electric vehicles: A case study of electric buses in Germany
Christian Rieke and
Applied Energy, 2019, vol. 237, issue C, 618-634
In many countries, the replacement of internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEVs) with battery electric vehicles (BEVs) offers an opportunity to reduce CO2 equivalent (CO2eq) emissions in traffic. BEVs have significantly greater energy conversion efficiency from energy storage to wheel (tank-to-wheel [TTW]) and zero tailpipe emissions; these features are in stark contrast to the environmental burdens posed by vehicle production and electricity generation (well-to-tank [WTT]). Since CO2eq emissions from vehicle use of BEVs account for the majority of the entire life cycle emissions, it is important to closely examine the CO2eq intensity of electricity generation, which varies based on the sources of energy in the electricity mix of each country and time of day.
Keywords: Battery electric vehicle; Electricity generation; CO2 emissions; Environmental assessment; Charging strategy (search for similar items in EconPapers)
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