# Asymptotic theory for time series with changing mean and variance

*Violetta Dalla*,
*Liudas Giraitis* and
*Peter M. Robinson*

*Journal of Econometrics*, 2020, vol. 219, issue 2, 281-313

**Abstract:**
The paper develops point estimation and asymptotic theory with respect to a semiparametric model for time series with moving mean and unconditional heteroscedasticity. These two features are modelled nonparametrically, whereas autocorrelations are described by a short memory stationary parametric time series model. We first study the usual least squares estimate of the coefficient of the first-order autoregressive model based on constant but unknown mean and variance. Allowing for both the latter to vary over time in a general way we establish its probability limit and a central limit theorem for a suitably normed and centred statistic, giving explicit bias and variance formulae. As expected mean variation is the main source of inconsistency and heteroscedasticity the main source of inefficiency, though we discuss circumstances in which the estimate is consistent for, and asymptotically normal about, the autoregressive coefficient, albeit inefficient. We then consider standard implicitly-defined Whittle estimates of a more general class of short memory parametric time series model, under otherwise more restrictive conditions. When the mean is correctly assumed to be constant, estimates that ignore the heteroscedasticity are again found to be asymptotically normal but inefficient. Allowing a slowly time-varying mean we resort to trimming out of low frequencies to achieve the same outcome. Returning to finite order autoregression, nonparametric estimates of the varying mean and variance are given asymptotic justification, and forecasting formulae developed. Finite sample properties are studied by a small Monte Carlo simulation, and an empirical example is also included.

**Keywords:** Semiparametric time series model; Nonparametric heteroscedasticity; Nonparametric moving mean; Parametric autocorrelation (search for similar items in EconPapers)

**JEL-codes:** C14 C22 (search for similar items in EconPapers)

**Date:** 2020

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**Persistent link:** https://EconPapers.repec.org/RePEc:eee:econom:v:219:y:2020:i:2:p:281-313

**DOI:** 10.1016/j.jeconom.2020.03.005

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Journal of Econometrics is currently edited by *T. Amemiya*, *A. R. Gallant*, *J. F. Geweke*, *C. Hsiao* and *P. M. Robinson*

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