Do country risks influence carbon dioxide emissions? A non-linear perspective
Wenwen Zhang and
Energy, 2020, vol. 206, issue C
This study explores the non-linear effects of real income, energy use, and country risks on carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in a panel of 111 countries from 1985 to 2014. By applying the panel smooth transition regression model, we find that real income, energy use, and country risks have different impacts on CO2 emissions when using country risks as thresholds. As to the full sample, the results show an inverted U-shaped relationship between CO2 emissions and economic risk, and that the financial and political risk indices have monotonically increasing effects on CO2 emissions. As country risks decrease, the positive effects of real income and energy use on CO2 emissions are first large and then become small. Moreover, with country risks changing, low-income countries have larger sensitivities to CO2 emissions.
Keywords: Carbon dioxide emissions; Energy use; Real income; Country risks (search for similar items in EconPapers)
JEL-codes: C33 O13 Q43 Q53 (search for similar items in EconPapers)
References: View references in EconPapers View complete reference list from CitEc
Citations: Track citations by RSS feed
Downloads: (external link)
Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only
This item may be available elsewhere in EconPapers: Search for items with the same title.
Export reference: BibTeX
RIS (EndNote, ProCite, RefMan)
Persistent link: https://EconPapers.repec.org/RePEc:eee:energy:v:206:y:2020:i:c:s0360544220311555
Access Statistics for this article
Energy is currently edited by Henrik Lund and Mark J. Kaiser
More articles in Energy from Elsevier
Bibliographic data for series maintained by Haili He ().