A comparison of lead-acid and lithium-based battery behavior and capacity fade in off-grid renewable charging applications
Elena M. Krieger,
John Cannarella and
Craig B. Arnold
Energy, 2013, vol. 60, issue C, 492-500
The effects of variable charging rates and incomplete charging in off-grid renewable energy applications are studied by comparing battery degradation rates and mechanisms in lead-acid, LCO (lithium cobalt oxide), LCO-NMC (LCO-lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide composite), and LFP (lithium iron phosphate) cells charged with wind-based charging protocols. Poor pulse charge acceptance, particularly for long pulses, contributes to incomplete charging and rapid degradation of lead-acid cells due to apparent high rates of sulphation and resistance growth. Partial charging and pulse charging, common lead-acid stressors in off-grid applications, are found to have little if any effect on degradation in the lithium-based cells when compared to constant current charging. These cells all last much longer than the lead-acid cells; the LFP batteries show the greatest longevity, with minimal capacity fade observed after over 1000 cycles. Pulse charge acceptance is found to depend on pulse length in lead-acid and LFP cells, but not in LCO and LCO-NMC cells. Excellent power performance and consistent voltage and power behavior during cycling suggest that LFP batteries are well-suited to withstand the stresses associated with off-grid renewable energy storage and have the potential to reduce system lifetime costs.
Keywords: Off-grid renewables; Lead-acid; Lithium-ion; Capacity fade; Wind; Variable charge (search for similar items in EconPapers)
References: View complete reference list from CitEc
Citations View citations in EconPapers (12) Track citations by RSS feed
Downloads: (external link)
Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only
This item may be available elsewhere in EconPapers: Search for items with the same title.
Export reference: BibTeX
RIS (EndNote, ProCite, RefMan)
Persistent link: https://EconPapers.repec.org/RePEc:eee:energy:v:60:y:2013:i:c:p:492-500
Access Statistics for this article
Energy is currently edited by Henrik Lund and Mark J. Kaiser
More articles in Energy from Elsevier
Series data maintained by Dana Niculescu ().