# Parental occupation and children’s school outcomes in math

*Gianna Claudia Giannelli* () and
*Chiara Rapallini* ()

*Research in Economics*, 2019, vol. 73, issue 4, 293-303

**Abstract:**
We investigate the relationship between math attitude and students’ math scores using data obtained from PISA 2012 and a 2SLS model. Math attitude is approximated by an indicator that takes into account intangible (parental attitude, student instrumental motivation and student math anxiety) and tangible (parental help in math homework) factors. The presence of one family member in a math-related career is our instrumental variable. We find that an increase of one standard deviation in math attitude increases the student score by approximately 30 points, a relevant effect since 40 points is the equivalent of one year of schooling.

**Keywords:** Parental attitude toward math; Student instrumental motivation; Math anxiety; Math-related career; Math scores (search for similar items in EconPapers)

**JEL-codes:** I20 J24 D1 J13 (search for similar items in EconPapers)

**Date:** 2019

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http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1090944319302923

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**Related works:**

Working Paper: Parental occupation and children's school outcomes in math (2018)

Working Paper: Parental Occupation and Children's School Outcomes in Math (2018)

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**Persistent link:** https://EconPapers.repec.org/RePEc:eee:reecon:v:73:y:2019:i:4:p:293-303

**DOI:** 10.1016/j.rie.2019.08.003

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