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Fiscal and monetary effects on environmental quality, growth, and welfare

Oscar Afonso

Research in Economics, 2023, vol. 77, issue 1, 202-219

Abstract: This paper examines the effect of fiscal and monetary policies on economic growth, inflation, environmental quality, and welfare. To this end, the horizontal-R&D growth model is extended to include pollution generated in the intermediate-goods production, and the demand for money through cash-in-advance (CIA) constraints on intermediate-goods production and R&D investment. Fiscal policy embodied in the taxation of pollution decreases output, profits, inflation, and wages in the intermediate-goods sector, reallocating labor to R&D that is the engine of economic growth. As it reduces pollution, it increases welfare if there are strong preferences for a clean environment. In turn, since the inflation rate is an increasing function of the nominal interest rate, the effects of changes in this monetary policy variable extend to the effects of changes in the inflation rate. An increase in the nominal interest rate penalizes employment, wages and output in the R&D sector relatively more if the respective CIA constraint is more demanding and thus economic growth decreases. As it also reduces pollution since decreases intermediate-goods production, it increases welfare if the preferences for a clean environment are strong enough.

Keywords: Horizontal growth model; Household’s welfare; Pollution; Fiscal and monetary policies (search for similar items in EconPapers)
JEL-codes: O31 O33 Q58 (search for similar items in EconPapers)
Date: 2023
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DOI: 10.1016/j.rie.2023.02.002

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