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Mapping Obesogenic Food Environments in South Africa and Ghana: Correlations and Contradictions

Florian Kroll (), Elizabeth Catherina Swart, Reginald Adjetey Annan, Anne Marie Thow, David Neves, Charles Apprey, Linda Nana Esi Aduku, Nana Ama Frimpomaa Agyapong, Jean-Claude Moubarac, Andries du Toit, Robert Aidoo and David Sanders
Additional contact information
Florian Kroll: School of Public Health, University of the Western Cape, Cape Town 7535, South Africa
Elizabeth Catherina Swart: School of Public Health, University of the Western Cape, Cape Town 7535, South Africa
Reginald Adjetey Annan: Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, College of Science, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Private Mail Bag, University Post Office, KNUST, Kumasi 0023351, Ghana
Anne Marie Thow: Menzies Centre for Health Policy, University of Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia
David Neves: Institute for Poverty, Land and Agrarian Studies, University of the Western Cape, Cape Town 7535, South Africa
Charles Apprey: Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, College of Science, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Private Mail Bag, University Post Office, KNUST, Kumasi 0023351, Ghana
Linda Nana Esi Aduku: Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, College of Science, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Private Mail Bag, University Post Office, KNUST, Kumasi 0023351, Ghana
Nana Ama Frimpomaa Agyapong: Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, College of Science, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Private Mail Bag, University Post Office, KNUST, Kumasi 0023351, Ghana
Jean-Claude Moubarac: Département de Nutrition, Faculté de Médecine, Universi té de Montréal, PO Box 6128, Centre-ville Station Montréal, QC H3C 3J7, Canada
Andries du Toit: Institute for Poverty, Land and Agrarian Studies, University of the Western Cape, Cape Town 7535, South Africa
Robert Aidoo: Department of Agricultural Economics, Agribusiness & Extension, Faculty of Agriculture, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi 0023351, Ghana
David Sanders: School of Public Health, University of the Western Cape, Cape Town 7535, South Africa

Sustainability, 2019, vol. 11, issue 14, 1-31

Abstract: In sub-Saharan Africa, urbanisation and food systems change contribute to rapid dietary transitions promoting obesity. It is unclear to what extent these changes are mediated by neighbourhood food environments or other factors. This paper correlates neighbourhood food provision with household consumption and poverty in Khayelitsha, South Africa and Ahodwo, Ghana. Georeferenced survey data of food consumption and provision were classified by obesity risk and protection. Outlets were mapped, and density and distribution correlated with risk classes. In Khayelitsha, 71% of households exceeded dietary obesity risk thresholds while 16% consumed protective diets. Obesogenic profiles were less (26%) and protective more prevalent (23%) in Ahodwo despite greater income poverty in Khayelitsha. Here, income-deprived households consumed significantly ( p < 0.005) less obesogenic and protective diets. Small informal food outlets dominated numerically but supermarkets were key household food sources in Khayelitsha. Although density of food provision in Ahodwo was higher (76/km 2 ), Khayelitsha outlets (61/km 2 ) provided greater access to obesogenic (57% Khayelitsha; 39% Ahodwo) and protective (43% Khayelitsha; 16% Ahodwo) foods. Consumption and provision profiles correlate more strongly in Ahodwo than Khayelitsha (rKhayelitsha = 0.624; rAhodwo = 0.862). Higher obesogenic food consumption in Khayelitsha suggests that risky food environments and poverty together promote obesogenic diets.

Keywords: obesity; food environments; urban; mapping; nutrition; South Africa; Ghana; governance; supermarkets; ultra-processed (search for similar items in EconPapers)
JEL-codes: Q Q0 Q2 Q3 Q5 Q56 O13 (search for similar items in EconPapers)
Date: 2019
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