Sex, Wages, and Productivity: An Empirical Analysis of Israeli Firm-Level Data
Judith Hellerstein () and
David Neumark ()
International Economic Review, 1999, vol. 40, issue 1, 95-123
Sex discrimination in labor markets may generate a wage gap between men and women that exceeds any gap in marginal productivity. We test for this type of discrimination using unique firm-level data on manufacturing firms in Israel. There is a statistically significant negative association between wages and the proportion of a firm's workforce that is female. However, there is also a statistically significant negative association between marginal productivity and the proportion of females. The difference between the wage and productivity gaps is small relative to wage-regression estimates of wage discrimination, and is not statistically significant, which is most consistent with no discrimination. Copyright 1999 by Economics Department of the University of Pennsylvania and the Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association.
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Working Paper: Sex, Wages, and Productivity: an Empirical Analysis of Israeli, Firm-Level Data (1995)
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