Towards a Broader Assessment of Value in Vaccines: The BRAVE Way Forward
Margherita Neri and
Lotte Steuten ()
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Eleanor Bell: Office of Health Economics
Margherita Neri: Office of Health Economics
Lotte Steuten: Office of Health Economics
Applied Health Economics and Health Policy, 2022, vol. 20, issue 1, No 11, 105-117
Abstract Background The COVID-19 pandemic shows that the impact of effective vaccines can extend well beyond vaccinated individuals and healthcare systems. Yet, these broader value elements are not typically considered in Health Technology Assessment (HTA) which may underestimate vaccines’ broader value. Objectives This study aimed to (1) describe the gap between broader value elements identified in value frameworks for vaccines and those recognised in HTA of vaccines in nine developed markets, and (2) develop expert-informed, consensus-based recommendations on how hurdles for broader value recognition could be overcome. Methods We used a four-step modified Delphi method consisting of literature research (phase I, pearl-growing approach using PubMed Web of Science and Google covering the years 2000–2019), two consecutive phases of expert elicitation (phase II and III, including two email surveys and one virtual round table with 10 experts from 9 countries) and synthesis of recommendations (phase IV). Results Results show that about half of the broader value elements relevant to vaccines are not (consistently) considered in HTA processes of multiple higher-income countries. Experts identified five priority areas for broader value recognition, including considering (1) more comprehensive cost offsets within the health care system, (2) carer quality of life, (3) transmission value, (4) prevention of antimicrobial resistance and (5) macroeconomic effects. Conclusion To achieve a broader recognition of the value of vaccines, a three-pronged approach was recommended, focusing on (1) Evidence: proactively steering generation of high-quality evidence to quantify the broader value of vaccines to society; (2) Ability: leveraging and further developing existing methodological and analytic expertise to appropriately recognise the broad value of vaccines within HTA processes; (3) Willingness: Stimulating stakeholder engagement to change the status quo and move towards more transparent and comprehensive value assessment processes for vaccines globally.
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