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Kernel Density Estimation Based on the Distinct Units in Sampling with Replacement

Sayed A. Mostafa () and Ibrahim A. Ahmad
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Sayed A. Mostafa: North Carolina A&T State University
Ibrahim A. Ahmad: Oklahoma State University

Sankhya B: The Indian Journal of Statistics, 2021, vol. 83, issue 2, No 9, 507-547

Abstract: Abstract This paper considers the problem of estimating density functions using the kernel method based on the set of distinct units in sampling with replacement. Using a combined design-model-based inference framework, which accounts for the underlying superpopulation model as well as the randomization distribution induced by the sampling design, we derive asymptotic expressions for the bias and integrated mean squared error (MISE) of a Parzen-Rosenblatt-type kernel density estimator (KDE) based on the distinct units from sampling with replacement. We also prove the asymptotic normality of the distinct units KDE under both design-based and combined inference frameworks. Additionally, we give the asymptotic MISE formulas of several alternative estimators including the estimator based on the full with-replacement sample and estimators based on without-replacement sampling of similar cost. Using the MISE expressions, we discuss how the various estimators compare asymptotically. Moreover, we use Mote Carlo simulations to investigate the finite sample properties of these estimators. Our simulation results show that the distinct units KDE and the without-replacement KDEs perform similarly but are all always superior to the full with-replacement sample KDE. Furthermore, we briefly discuss a Nadaraya-Watson-type kernel regression estimator based on the distinct units from sampling with replacement, derive its MSE under the combined inference framework, and demonstrate its finite sample properties using a small simulation study. Finally, we extend the distinct units density and regression estimators to the case of two-stage sampling with replacement.

Keywords: Distinct units; kernel density estimation; kernel regression; random sample size; sampling with/without replacement.; Primary 62G07; Secondary 62D05, 62G08 (search for similar items in EconPapers)
Date: 2021
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DOI: 10.1007/s13571-019-00223-9

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