A Multi-state Piecewise Exponential Model of Hospital Outcomes after Injury
Louise Ryan and
F. L. Lucas
Journal of Applied Statistics, 2007, vol. 34, issue 10, 1225-1239
To allow more accurate prediction of hospital length of stay (LOS) after serious injury or illness, a multi-state model is proposed, in which transitions from the hospitalized state to three possible outcome states (home, long-term care, or death) are assumed to follow constant rates for each of a limited number of time periods. This results in a piecewise exponential (PWE) model for each outcome. Transition rates may be affected by time-varying covariates, which can be estimated from a reference database using standard statistical software and Poisson regression. A PWE model combining the three outcomes allows prediction of LOS. Records of 259,941 injured patients from the US Nationwide Inpatient Sample were used to create such a multi-state PWE model with four time periods. Hospital mortality and LOS for patient subgroups were calculated from this model, and time-varying covariate effects were estimated. Early mortality was increased by anatomic injury severity or penetrating mechanism, but these effects diminished with time; age and male sex remained strong predictors of mortality in all time periods. Rates of discharge home decreased steadily with time, while rates of transfer to long-term care peaked at five days. Predicted and observed LOS and mortality were similar for multiple subgroups. Conceptual background and methods of calculation are discussed and demonstrated. Multi-state PWE models may be useful to describe hospital outcomes, especially when many patients are not discharged home.
Keywords: LOS; injury; model; multi-state; piecewise exponential; competing risks (search for similar items in EconPapers)
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