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International Approval and Labeling Regulations of Genetically Modified Food in Major Trading Countries

Colin Carter () and Guillaume Gruère ()

Chapter Chapter 21 in Regulating Agricultural Biotechnology: Economics and Policy, 2006, pp 459-480 from Springer

Abstract: Abstract We review the approval and labeling regulations covering genetically modified (GM) foods in the United States, the European Union (EU), Japan, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand. We divide these countries into three groups according to their regulatory approach. At one extreme, the United States and Canada use pragmatic and science-based regulations, and at the other extreme the EU uses stringent and precautionary regulations. Finally, Japan and Australia/New Zealand have intermediate regulatory approaches. We argue that labeling requirements in importing nations have affected international trade, and that approval regulations are more likely than labeling regulations to be harmonized in the future.

Keywords: genetically modified (GM) food; labeling; international trade (search for similar items in EconPapers)
Date: 2006
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DOI: 10.1007/978-0-387-36953-2_21

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