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A Comparison of First-Difference and Forward Orthogonal Deviations GMM

Robert Phillips ()

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Abstract: This paper provides a necessary and sufficient instruments condition assuring two-step generalized method of moments (GMM) based on the forward orthogonal deviations transformation is numerically equivalent to two-step GMM based on the first-difference transformation. The condition also tells us when system GMM, based on differencing, can be computed using forward orthogonal deviations. Additionally, it tells us when forward orthogonal deviations and differencing do not lead to the same GMM estimator. When estimators based on these two transformations differ, Monte Carlo simulations indicate that estimators based on forward orthogonal deviations have better finite sample properties than estimators based on differencing.

Date: 2019-07
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Handle: RePEc:arx:papers:1907.12880