Bibliometric indices as a measure of long-term competitive balance in knockout tournaments
L\'aszl\'o Csat\'o and
D\'ora Gr\'eta Petr\'oczy
Authors registered in the RePEc Author Service: Dóra Gréta Petróczy
Papers from arXiv.org
We argue for the application of bibliometric indices to quantify long-term uncertainty of outcome in sports. The Euclidean index is proposed to reward quality over quantity, while the rectangle index can be an appropriate measure of core performance. Their differences are highlighted through an axiomatic analysis and several examples. Our approach also requires a weighting scheme to compare different achievements. The methodology is illustrated by studying the knockout stage of the UEFA Champions League in the 16 seasons played between 2003 and 2019: club and country performances as well as three types of competitive balance are considered. Measuring competition at the level of national associations is a novelty. All results are remarkably robust concerning the bibliometric index and the assigned weights. Inequality has not increased among the elite clubs and between the national associations, however, it has changed within some countries. Since the performances of national associations are more stable than the results of individual clubs, it would be better to build the seeding in the UEFA Champions League group stage upon association coefficients adjusted for league finishing positions rather than club coefficients.
Date: 2020-05, Revised 2020-09
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