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Multi-unit Double Auctions: Equilibrium Analysis and Bidding Strategy using DDPG in Smart-grids

Sanjay Chandlekar, Easwar Subramanian, Sanjay Bhat, Praveen Paruchuri and Sujit Gujar

Papers from arXiv.org

Abstract: Periodic double auctions (PDA) have applications in many areas such as in e-commerce, intra-day equity markets, and day-ahead energy markets in smart-grids. While the trades accomplished using PDAs are worth trillions of dollars, finding a reliable bidding strategy in such auctions is still a challenge as it requires the consideration of future auctions. A participating buyer in a PDA has to design its bidding strategy by planning for current and future auctions. Many equilibrium-based bidding strategies proposed are complex to use in real-time. In the current exposition, we propose a scale-based bidding strategy for buyers participating in PDA. We first present an equilibrium analysis for single-buyer single-seller multi-unit single-shot k-Double auctions. Specifically, we analyze the situation when a seller and a buyer trade two identical units of quantity in a double auction where both the buyer and the seller deploy a simple, scale-based bidding strategy. The equilibrium analysis becomes intractable as the number of participants increases. To be useful in more complex settings such as wholesale markets in smart-grids, we model equilibrium bidding strategy as a learning problem. We develop a deep deterministic policy gradient (DDPG) based learning strategy, DDPGBBS, for a participating agent in PDAs to suggest an action at any auction instance. DDPGBBS, which empirically follows the obtained theoretical equilibrium, is easily extendable when the number of buyers/sellers increases. We take Power Trading Agent Competition's (PowerTAC) wholesale market PDA as a testbed to evaluate our novel bidding strategy. We benchmark our DDPG based strategy against several baselines and state-of-the-art bidding strategies of the PowerTAC wholesale market PDA and demonstrate the efficacy of DDPGBBS against several benchmarked strategies.

Date: 2022-01, Revised 2022-02
New Economics Papers: this item is included in nep-des, nep-ene and nep-gth
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