Hooliganism in the Shadow of the 9/11 Terrorist Attack and the Tsunami: Do Police Reduce Group Violence?
Panu Poutvaara () and
No 1882, CESifo Working Paper Series from CESifo
This paper isolates the causal effect of policing on group violence, using unique panel data on self-reported crime by soccer and ice hockey hooligans. The problem of reverse causality from violence to policing is solved by two drastic reallocations of the Stockholm Supporter Police unit to other activities following the 9/11 terrorist attack in September 2001 and the Tsunami catastrophe in December 2004. Difference-in-difference analysis reveals that Stockholm-related hooligan violence increased dramatically during these periods.
Keywords: police; violence; hooliganism; natural experiments (search for similar items in EconPapers)
JEL-codes: K10 K42 (search for similar items in EconPapers)
New Economics Papers: this item is included in nep-law, nep-spo and nep-ure
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Persistent link: https://EconPapers.repec.org/RePEc:ces:ceswps:_1882
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