The Summer Drop in Female Employment
Brendan M. Price and
No 9783, CESifo Working Paper Series from CESifo
We provide the first systematic account of summer declines in women’s labor market activity. From May to July, the employment-to-population ratio among prime-age US women declines by 1.1 percentage points, whereas male employment rises; women’s total hours worked fall by 11 percent, twice the decline among men. School closures for summer break−and corresponding lapses in implicit childcare−provide a unifying explanation for these patterns. The summer drop in female employment aligns with cross-state differences in the timing of school closures, is concentrated among mothers with young school-age children, and coincides with increased time spent engaging in childcare. Decomposing the gender gap in summer work interruptions across job types defined by sector and occupation, we find large contributions from both gender differences in job allocation and gender differences within jobs in the propensity to exit employment over the summer. Summer childcare constraints may contribute to gender gaps in career choice and earnings: women−particularly those with young school-age children−disproportionately work in the education sector, which offers greater summer flexibility but lower compensation relative to comparable jobs outside of education.
Keywords: gender gap; seasonality; labor force participation; childcare; time use; school closure (search for similar items in EconPapers)
JEL-codes: J13 J16 J22 J24 (search for similar items in EconPapers)
New Economics Papers: this item is included in nep-gen and nep-lab
References: View references in EconPapers View complete reference list from CitEc
Citations: View citations in EconPapers (2) Track citations by RSS feed
Downloads: (external link)
Working Paper: The Summer Drop in Female Employment (2023)
Working Paper: The Summer Drop in Female Employment (2022)
This item may be available elsewhere in EconPapers: Search for items with the same title.
Export reference: BibTeX
RIS (EndNote, ProCite, RefMan)
Persistent link: https://EconPapers.repec.org/RePEc:ces:ceswps:_9783
Access Statistics for this paper
More papers in CESifo Working Paper Series from CESifo Contact information at EDIRC.
Bibliographic data for series maintained by Klaus Wohlrabe ().