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Adoption of AI-based Information Systems from an Organizational and User Perspective

Christoph Tauchert

Publications of Darmstadt Technical University, Institute for Business Studies (BWL) from Darmstadt Technical University, Department of Business Administration, Economics and Law, Institute for Business Studies (BWL)

Abstract: Artificial intelligence (AI) is fundamentally changing our society and economy. Companies are investing a great deal of money and time into building corresponding competences and developing prototypes with the aim of integrating AI into their products and services, as well as enriching and improving their internal business processes. This inevitably brings corporate and private users into contact with a new technology that functions fundamentally differently than traditional software. The possibility of using machine learning to generate precise models based on large amounts of data capable of recognizing patterns within that data holds great economic and social potential—for example, in task augmentation and automation, medical diagnostics, and the development of pharmaceutical drugs. At the same time, companies and users are facing new challenges that accompany the introduction of this technology. Businesses are struggling to manage and generate value from big data, and employees fear increasing automation. To better prepare society for the growing market penetration of AI-based information systems into everyday life, a deeper understanding of this technology in terms of organizational and individual use is needed. Motivated by the many new challenges and questions for theory and practice that arise from AI-based information systems, this dissertation addresses various research questions with regard to the use of such information systems from both user and organizational perspectives. A total of five studies were conducted and published: two from the perspective of organizations and three among users. The results of these studies contribute to the current state of research and provide a basis for future studies. In addition, the gained insights enable recommendations to be derived for companies wishing to integrate AI into their products, services, or business processes. The first research article (Research Paper A) investigated which factors and prerequisites influence the success of the introduction and adoption of AI. Using the technology–organization–environment framework, various factors in the categories of technology, organization, and environment were identified and validated through the analysis of expert interviews with managers experienced in the field of AI. The results show that factors related to data (especially availability and quality) and the management of AI projects (especially project management and use cases) have been added to the framework, but regulatory factors have also emerged, such as the uncertainty caused by the General Data Protection Regulation. The focus of Research Paper B is companies’ motivation to host data science competitions on online platforms and which factors influence their success. Extant research has shown that employees with new skills are needed to carry out AI projects and that many companies have problems recruiting such employees. Therefore, data science competitions could support the implementation of AI projects via crowdsourcing. The results of the study (expert interviews among data scientists) show that these competitions offer many advantages, such as exchanges and discussions with experienced data scientists and the use of state-of-the-art approaches. However, only a small part of the effort related to AI projects can be represented within the framework of such competitions. The studies in the other three research papers (Research Papers C, D, and E) examine AI-based information systems from a user perspective, with two studies examining user behavior and one focusing on the design of an AI-based IT artifact. Research Paper C analyses perceptions of AI-based advisory systems in terms of the advantages associated with their use. The results of the empirical study show that the greatest perceived benefit is the convenience such systems provide, as they are easy to access at any time and can immediately satisfy informational needs. Furthermore, this study examined the effectiveness of 11 different measures to increase trust in AI-based advisory systems. This showed a clear ranking of measures, with effectiveness decreasing from non-binding testing to providing additional information regarding how the system works to adding anthropomorphic features. The goal of Research Paper D was to investigate actual user behavior when interacting with AI-based advisory systems. Based on the theoretical foundations of task–technology fit and judge–advisor systems, an online experiment was conducted. The results show that, above all, perceived expertise and the ability to make efficient decisions through AI-based advisory systems influence whether users assess these systems as suitable for supporting certain tasks. In addition, the study provides initial indications that users might be more willing to follow the advice of AI-based systems than that of human advisors. Finally, Research Paper E designs and implements an IT artifact that uses machine learning techniques to support structured literature reviews. Following the approach of design science research, an artifact was iteratively developed that can automatically download research articles from various databases and analyze and group them according to their content using the word2vec algorithm, the latent Dirichlet allocation model, and agglomerative hierarchical cluster analysis. An evaluation of the artifact on a dataset of 308 publications shows that it can be a helpful tool to support literature reviews but that much manual effort is still required, especially with regard to the identification of common concepts in extant literature.

Date: 2022
New Economics Papers: this item is included in nep-big, nep-cmp and nep-ppm
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