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Beyond GDP: an analysis of the socio-economic diversity of European regions

Kassoum Ayouba (), Julie Le Gallo () and Andrés Vallone
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Kassoum Ayouba: CESAER - Centre d'Economie et de Sociologie Rurales Appliquées à l'Agriculture et aux Espaces Ruraux - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - AgroSup Dijon - Institut National Supérieur des Sciences Agronomiques, de l'Alimentation et de l'Environnement
Andrés Vallone: Universidad Católica del Norte

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Abstract: This paper aims to analyze the socioeconomic diversity of the European Union (EU-28) regions from a dynamic perspective. For that purpose, we combine a series of exploratory space-time analysis approaches to multiple Factor Analysis (MFA) applied to a large range of indicators collected at the NUTS-2 level for the period 2000–2015 for the EU-28. First, we find that the first factor of MFA, interpreted as economic development (ECO-DEV), is spatially clustered and that a moderate convergence process is at work between European regions from 2000 to 2015. Second, when comparing these results with those obtained for Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita, we show that the convergence pattern detected with GDP per capita is more pronounced: ECO-DEV adjusts slower over time compared to GDP per capita. Third, pictures provided by the remaining interesting factors, capturing educational attainment, population dynamics and employment, are very different.

Keywords: Exploratory space-time analysis; Multiple factor analysis; Spatial autocorrelation; European regions (search for similar items in EconPapers)
Date: 2020-02-19
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Published in Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis (Routledge), 2020, 52 (9), pp.1010-1029. ⟨10.1080/00036846.2019.1646885⟩

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DOI: 10.1080/00036846.2019.1646885

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