The Effect of Multigrade Classes on Cognitive and Non-Cognitive Skills: Causal Evidence Exploiting Minimum Class Size Rules in Italy
Daniele Checchi () and
Maria De Paola ()
No 11211, IZA Discussion Papers from Institute of Labor Economics (IZA)
We analyse how schooling in multigrade classes affect the formation of student cognitive and non-cognitive skills. Our identification strategy is based on some institutional features of the Italian educational system establishing a minimum number of students per class. Classes that do not reach the minimum number of pupils are organized in multigrade classes. In addition, the Italian law also establishes a maximum number of students for multigrade classes, leaving a narrow range in the number of students per class which is very similar to small class size in single grade classes when the number of students enrolled in the grade is just above the minimum number of students per class. Using census data on 5th grade Italian students, we find that pupils in multigrade classrooms obtain worse test scores both in literacy and numeracy standardized tests compared to comparable pupils in single grade classroom. While the effect is small and not always statistically significant for the literacy score, we find a large and highly statistically significant effect on the numeracy score. No effect is found on grades assigned by teachers. We also find that pupils placed in multigrade classes tend to have a more external centred locus of control. Our results are robust to different specifications including controls for class size and a number of student and school characteristics.
Keywords: non-cognitive skills; cognitive skills; mixed-age classes; multigrade classes (search for similar items in EconPapers)
JEL-codes: C36 I21 I28 (search for similar items in EconPapers)
Pages: 32 pages
New Economics Papers: this item is included in nep-edu, nep-eur and nep-neu
References: View references in EconPapers View complete reference list from CitEc
Citations: View citations in EconPapers (3) Track citations by RSS feed
Published in: Economics of Education Review, 2018, 67, 235-253
Downloads: (external link)
Working Paper: THE EFFECT OF MULTIGRADE CLASSES ON COGNITIVE AND NON- COGNITIVE SKILLS. CAUSAL EVIDENCE EXPLOITING MINIMUM CLASS SIZE RULES IN ITALY (2018)
This item may be available elsewhere in EconPapers: Search for items with the same title.
Export reference: BibTeX
RIS (EndNote, ProCite, RefMan)
Persistent link: https://EconPapers.repec.org/RePEc:iza:izadps:dp11211
Ordering information: This working paper can be ordered from
IZA, Margard Ody, P.O. Box 7240, D-53072 Bonn, Germany
Access Statistics for this paper
More papers in IZA Discussion Papers from Institute of Labor Economics (IZA) IZA, P.O. Box 7240, D-53072 Bonn, Germany. Contact information at EDIRC.
Bibliographic data for series maintained by Holger Hinte ().