Culture, Gender, and Math: A Revisitation
Brindusa Anghel (),
Núria Rodriguez-Planas () and
No 12371, IZA Discussion Papers from Institute of Labor Economics (IZA)
Using five waves of PISA data spanning the period 2003-2015 and exploiting variation both across- and within-countries, we find that the positive association between the female-male gender gap in math test scores (which on average favors boys) and alternative measures of gender equality vanishes in OECD countries once we account for country fixed effects. Our findings highlight the relevance of country-level confounding factors when relying on cross-country analyses to study the relationship between the gender gap in math and female empowerment. Interestingly, our analysis for non-OECD countries uncovers a positive and statistically significant relationship between the math gender gap and female labor force participation. Similar results hold for the female-male gap in reading scores, which generally favors girls. This suggests that, in non-OECD countries, females' human capital accumulation (relative to that of males) is affected by their labor market prospects.
Keywords: gender gap in math and reading scores; OECD and non-OECD; female employment and opportunities (search for similar items in EconPapers)
JEL-codes: I1 Z1 (search for similar items in EconPapers)
Pages: 19 pages
New Economics Papers: this item is included in nep-eur and nep-gen
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Published - significantly revised version published as 'Gender Equality and the Math Gender Gap' in: Economics of Education Review. 2020, 79, 102064
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