Returns to Citizenship? Evidence from Germany's Recent Immigration Reforms
Christina Gathmann () and
Nicolas Keller ()
Additional contact information
Nicolas Keller: Alfred-Weber-Institut für Wirtschaftswissenschaften, Universität Heidelberg
No 8064, IZA Discussion Papers from Institute of Labor Economics (IZA)
Immigrants in many countries have lower employment rates and lower earnings than natives. In this paper, we ask whether a more liberal access to citizenship can improve the economic integration of immigrants. Our analysis relies on two major immigration reforms in Germany, a country with a relatively weak record of immigrant assimilation. For identification, we exploit discontinuities in the reforms' eligibility rules. Between 1991 and 1999, adolescents could obtain citizenship after eight years of residency in Germany, while adults faced a 15-year residency requirement. Since 2000, all immigrants face an 8-year residency requirement. OLS estimates show a positive correlation between naturalization and labor market performance. Based on the eligibility rules, we find few returns of citizenship for men, but substantial returns for women. Returns are also larger for more recent immigrants, but essentially zero for traditional guest workers. Overall, liberalization of citizenship provides some benefits in the labor market but is unlikely to result in full economic and social integration of immigrants in the host country.
Keywords: language; assimilation; citizenship; welfare; Germany (search for similar items in EconPapers)
JEL-codes: J24 J31 J61 K37 (search for similar items in EconPapers)
Pages: 59 pages
New Economics Papers: this item is included in nep-eur, nep-ger, nep-lab, nep-lma and nep-mig
References: Add references at CitEc
Citations: View citations in EconPapers (16) Track citations by RSS feed
Downloads: (external link)
Working Paper: Returns to Citizenship? Evidence from Germany's Recent Immigration Reforms (2014)
Working Paper: Returns to Citizenship?: Evidence from Germany's Recent Immigration Reforms (2014)
This item may be available elsewhere in EconPapers: Search for items with the same title.
Export reference: BibTeX
RIS (EndNote, ProCite, RefMan)
Persistent link: https://EconPapers.repec.org/RePEc:iza:izadps:dp8064
Ordering information: This working paper can be ordered from
IZA, Margard Ody, P.O. Box 7240, D-53072 Bonn, Germany
Access Statistics for this paper
More papers in IZA Discussion Papers from Institute of Labor Economics (IZA) IZA, P.O. Box 7240, D-53072 Bonn, Germany. Contact information at EDIRC.
Bibliographic data for series maintained by Holger Hinte ().