Shadow Economies and Corruption all over the World: What do we really know?
Friedrich Schneider ()
No 2006-17, Economics working papers from Department of Economics, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Austria
Estimations of the size and development of the shadow economy for 145 countries, including developing, transition and highly developed OECD economies over the period 1999 to 2003 are presented. The average size of the shadow economy (as a percent of "official" GDP) in 2002/03 in 96 developing countries is 38.7%, in 25 transition countries 40.1%, in 21 OECD countries 16.3% and in 3 Communist countries 22.3%. An increased burden of taxation and social security contributions, combined with a labor market regulation are the driving forces of the shadow economy. Furthermore, the results show that the shadow economy reduces corruption in high income countries, but increases corruption in low income countries. Finally, the various estimation methods are discussed and critically evaluated.
Keywords: shadow economy of 145 countries; tax burden; tax moral; quality of state institutions; regulation; DYMIMIC and other estimation methods (search for similar items in EconPapers)
JEL-codes: O17 O5 D78 H2 H11 H26 (search for similar items in EconPapers)
New Economics Papers: this item is included in nep-cwa, nep-dev, nep-pbe and nep-reg
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Working Paper: Shadow economies and corruption all over the world: what do we really know? (2007)
Working Paper: Shadow Economies and Corruption all over the World: What do we really Know? (2006)
Working Paper: Shadow Economies and Corruption All Over the World: What Do We Really Know? (2006)
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Persistent link: https://EconPapers.repec.org/RePEc:jku:econwp:2006_17
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